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2004 AAPM Summer School Home

Scientific Program Schedule
Day 2, Friday, July 30, 2004

An Introduction to Digital Imaging (AM)

The goal of this session is to review basic imaging physics of digital images and the way in which those images are handled and displayed clinically. The first talk reviews the imaging physics of digital images. The 2nd and 3rd talks review basic concepts associated with handling and viewing of radiographic and fluoroscopic images in a PACS environment. The 3rd talk may correspond to talks given by Ehsan Samei and Mike Flynn at RSNA 2002 (Course 325). (A similar talk on hardcopy technology, performance testing ancd QC is included in Session 6).

Time Topic & Faculty Objectives
8:00am-8:10am LAC Issues and Announcements  

The Nature of the Digital Image

Ehsan Samei

PDF Presentation
(18.7 MB)


This lecture reviews basic imaging physics concepts as applied to the description of digital images. These concepts include effects of the digitization process on spatial resolution, noise, dynamic range and latitude. Basic image descriptors (MTF, noise power spectra, DQE) should be reviewed, along with how these are applied to and affected by digital images. Particular emphasis should be placed on dynamic range/contrast/

latitude issues. Digital receptors claim very large “dynamic range”, but this does not always translate into an equally large latitude due to a desire to maximize contrast for “clinically relevant” signal ranges. The talk should discuss factors determining dynamic range (receptor response, ADC bit depth, algorithms, etc), along with examples of common approaches to deal with the contrast/latitude tradeoff.


PACS Basics for Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Systems

Jeff Shepard

PDF Presentation
(1.7 MB)

An important aspect of clinical workflow requirements, performance specifications, and testing of radiographic and fluoroscopic systems is how they communicate with and interact with PACS. This lecture reviews those PACS concepts and DICOM components important to these tasks, including DICOM Worklist Management Service Class user (SCU), DICOM Storage SCU, DICOM Print, etc. Rather than delve into details of the DICOM standard and PACS design, the focus should remain on what attendees should know in order to assure that purchased equipment meets requirements for effective operation in a PACS environment.

10:00am-10:20am BREAK

Softcopy Display Technology, Specifications, Performance Evaluation and QC

Michael Flynn

PDF Presentation
(25 MB)

This talk will begin with a review of CRT and LCD display technology, including expected future improvements, emphasizing those characteristics related to performance   specifications pertinent to radiographic and fluoroscopic viewing (resolution, brightness and grayscale response functions). The goal of this part will be to provide the attendees with information needed for correct display selection, either as part of softcopy reading or as in-room fluoroscopic monitors. The second part of this talk will discuss performance evaluation and QC procedures that may be implemented by the clinical medical physicist.
11:45am-1:15pm LUNCH

Digital Imaging Receptor Technology (PM)

The session introduces, then discusses in detail, technology of digital radiographic and fluoroscopic technology. Lecture 1 provides an overview of digital receptor technology. Lectures 2, 3 and 4 discuss in more detail those specific technologies in wide use CR (lecture 2), DR (lecture 3) and CCD (lecture 4).

Time Topic & Faculty Objectives

An Overview of Digital Imaging Systems for Radiography and Fluoroscopy

Mike Yester

PDF Presentation
(2 MB)

The objective of this lecture is to provide an overview the various digital receptor technologies, possibly with a brief comparison of their advantages/disadvantages, speeds, resolutions, etc. A more detailed discussion of CR, DR and CCD based technologies will be covered in greater detail in the following three lectures.

Computed Radiography Technology

Tony Seibert

PDF Presentation
(19 MB)

This lecture will describe CR technology in greater depth. Since attendees are likely to be familiar with CR principles, and perhaps have had some hands-on experience with current CR technology, the lecture should concentrate on recent and expected future advances in CR technology (double-sided readout, high absorption efficiency phosphor materials, flat-panel CR device, etc) and how they compare in image quality, speed and clinical utility with current CR and DR detectors.

3:00pm-3:20pm BREAK

Flat Panel Detector Technology for Radiography and Fluoroscopy

Ian Yorkston

Powerpoint Presentation to follow

Analogous to the previous talk, this lecture will focus on flat panel DR receptors (both direct and indirect). In addition to basic principles, objectives should include theoretical and practical advantages/disadvantages and limitation in image quality (resolution, DQE, dynamic range) and clinical use in radiography and fluoroscopy.


CCD DR Detectors

Mike Yester

PDF Presentation
(.2 MB)

This lecture will expand on CCD-based DR systems, again, focusing on its practical advantages/

disadvantages and limitations, as compared to other DR technologies.